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FCS Physics and Chemistry

The Periodic Table of Elements
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Currently, more than 100 elements are known.  Most of them occur naturally, while others are made artificially. 
These elements vary greatly in their physical and chemical properties as well as in the characteristics of their compounds.  It has long been recognized that if the elements could be classified, it would simplify their study.
Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist in the middle 19th century, was first given credit for arranging the elements in a usable manner.  He observed that when the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, similiar chemical and physical properties appeared at regular, or periodic, intervals. 
While this was close, some irregularities did exist.  The current table is arranged according to atomic number (# of protons), thanks to the work of English scientist Henry Moseley.
Table Information is provided below...

The Periodic Table of Elements

Periods: rows across the table
Families (groups): columns down the table 

Click below to
learn about metals

Click HERE to learn about Metalloids and Nonmetals

Trends of the Table:
  • Families contain similiar chemical properties
  • Atomic Radius increases as you move down a column and from right to left across a period
  • Ionization Energy increases up a column and from left to right across a period
  • Electronegativity increases the same as ionization energy

A more detailed Table, like the one in your reference tables, provides much more information.  A cut-out of the table for the element Carbon is shown below

  • Atomic Number = # of protons
  • Atomic Mass = protons + neutrons
  • Oxidation states = # of electrons lost/gained in a reaction
  • 2-4 = # of electrons and location in shells
  • In a neutral atom: # protons = # electrons
  • Isotope: an atom with a different # of neutrons than an atom of the same element
    Ion: loss or gain of electrons from a neutral atom

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